Viskas, ką jums reikia žinoti pagal nuorodą, palyginti su verte

Kalbant apie programinės įrangos inžineriją, yra nemažai nesuprastų sąvokų ir netinkamai vartojamų terminų. Pagal vertę ir vertę neabejotinai yra vienas iš jų.

Prisimenu tą dieną, kai perskaičiau temą ir kiekvienas šaltinis, kurį patyriau, prieštaravo ankstesniam. Prireikė šiek tiek laiko, kol tai gerai suvokėme. Neturėjau kito pasirinkimo, nes tai yra pagrindinis dalykas, jei esate programinės įrangos inžinierius.

Kelias savaites susidūriau su nemalonia klaida ir nusprendžiau parašyti straipsnį, kad kitiems žmonėms būtų lengviau suprasti šį dalyką.

Aš kasdien koduoju „Ruby“. Taip pat gana dažnai naudoju „JavaScript“, todėl šiam pristatymui pasirinkau šias dvi kalbas.

Norėdami suprasti visas sąvokas, mes taip pat naudosime keletą „Go“ ir „Perl“ pavyzdžių.

Norėdami suprasti visą temą, turite suprasti 3 skirtingus dalykus:

  • Kaip kalboje įgyvendinamos pagrindinės duomenų struktūros (objektai, primityvūs tipai, kintamumas).
  • Kaip veikia kintamasis priskyrimas / kopijavimas / perleidimas / palyginimas
  • Kaip kintamieji perduodami funkcijoms

Pagrindiniai duomenų tipai

„Ruby“ nėra primityvių tipų ir viskas yra objektas, įskaitant sveikus skaičius ir logines reikšmes.

Ir taip yra TrueClass„Ruby“.

true.is_a?(TrueClass) => true3.is_a?(Integer) => truetrue.is_a?(Object) => true3.is_a?(Object) => trueTrueClass.is_a?(Object) => trueInteger.is_a?(Object) => true

Šie objektai gali būti keičiami arba nekintami.

Nekintama reiškia, kad jokiu būdu negalite pakeisti objekto, kai jis bus sukurtas. Yra tik vienas nurodytos vertės egzempliorius su vienu object_idir jis lieka tas pats, nesvarbu, ką darote.

Pagal nutylėjimą Ruby nekintamas objektas tipai: Boolean, Numeric, nilir Symbol.

Atliekant MRT object_id , objekto tapatumas yra tas pats, VALUE kuris vaizduoja objektą C lygyje. Daugelio rūšių objektams tai VALUE yra žymeklis į vietą atmintyje, kurioje saugomi faktiniai objekto duomenys.

Nuo šiol naudosime object_idir pakeisime memory address.

Vykdykite kai kuriuos Ruby kodus MRT nekintamam simboliui ir kintamai eilutei:

:symbol.object_id => 808668:symbol.object_id => 808668'string'.object_id => 70137215233780'string'.object_id => 70137215215120

Kaip matote, kol simbolių versija ta pati reikšmė taiko objekto ID, eilutės reikšmės priklauso skirtingiems atminties adresams.

Skirtingai nuo Ruby, „JavaScript“ turi primityvių tipų.

Jie - Boolean, null, undefined, String, ir Number.

Duomenų tipų poilsio eiti pagal objektų skėtis ( Array, Function, ir Object). Nėra nieko išgalvotas čia yra būdas paprastesnis nei Ruby.

[] instanceof Array => true[] instanceof Object => true3 instanceof Object => false

Kintamas priskyrimas, kopijavimas, perleidimas ir palyginimas

„Ruby“ kiekvienas kintamasis yra tik nuoroda į objektą (nes viskas yra objektas).

a = 'string'b = a
# If you reassign a with the same value
a = 'string'puts b => 'string'puts a == b => true # values are the sameputs a.object_id == b.object_id => false # memory adr-s. differ
# If you reassign a with another value
a = 'new string'puts a => 'new string'puts b => 'string'puts a == b => false # values are differentputs a.object_id == b.object_id => false # memory adr-s. differ too

Kai priskiriate kintamąjį, tai yra nuoroda į objektą, o ne patį objektą. Kai nukopijuosite objektą, b = aabu kintamieji nurodys tą patį adresą.

Ši elgsena vadinama kopija pagal atskaitos vertę .

Griežtai kalbant „Ruby“ ir „JavaScript“, viskas nukopijuojama pagal vertę.

Kalbant apie objektus, vertybės būna tų objektų atminties adresai. Dėl to mes galime modifikuoti reikšmes, esančias tuose atminties adresuose. Vėlgi, tai vadinama kopija pagal atskaitos vertę, tačiau dauguma žmonių tai vadina kopija pagal nuorodą.

Tai būtų kopija pagal nuorodą, jei perskyrę a„nauja eilutė“, btaip pat nurodytų tą patį adresą ir turėtų tą pačią „naujos eilutės“ vertę.

Tas pats ir su nekintamu tipu, tokiu kaip „Integer“:

a = 1b = a
a = 1puts b => 1puts a == b => true # comparison by valueputs a.object_id == b.object_id => true # comparison by memory adr.

Kai priskiriate a tam pačiam sveikam skaičiui, atminties adresas lieka tas pats, nes nurodytas sveikasis skaičius visada turi tą patį object_id.

Kaip matote, kai palyginate bet kurį objektą su kitu, jis lyginamas pagal vertę. Jei norite patikrinti, ar jie yra tas pats objektas, kurį turite naudotiobject_id.

Pažiūrėkime „JavaScript“ versiją:

var a = 'string';var b = a;a = 'string'; # a is reassigned to the same value
console.log(a); => 'string'console.log(b); => 'string'console.log(a === b); => true // comparison by value
var a = [];var b = a;
console.log(a === b); => true
a = [];
console.log(a); => []console.log(b); => []console.log(a === b); => false // comparison by memory address

Išskyrus palyginimą - „JavaScript“ naudoja vertę primityviems tipams ir pagal nuorodas objektams. Panašu, kad elgesys yra toks pat, kaip ir Ruby.

Na, ne visai taip.

Primitive values in JavaScript will not be shared between multiple variables . Even if you set the variables equal to each other. Every variable representing a primitive value is guaranteed to belong to a unique memory location.

This means none of the variables will ever point to the same memory address. It is also important that the value itself is stored in a physical memory location.

In our example when we declare b = a, b will point to a different memory address with the same ‘string’ value right away. So you don’t need to reassign a to point to a different memory address.

This is called copied by value since you have no access to the memory address only to the value.

Let’s see a better example where all this matters.

In Ruby if we modify the value that sits in the memory address then all the references that point to the address will have the same updated value:

a = 'x'b = a
a.concat('y')puts a => 'xy'puts b => 'xy'
b.concat('z')puts a => 'xyz'puts b => 'xyz'
a = 'z'puts a => 'z'puts b => 'xyz'
a[0] = 'y'puts a => 'y'puts b => 'xyz'

You might think in JavaScript only the value of a would change but no. You can’t even change the original value as you don’t have direct access to the memory address.

You could say you assigned ‘x’ to a but it was assigned by value so a’s memory address holds the value ‘x’, but you can’t change it as you have no reference to it.

var a = 'x';var b = a;
a.concat('y');console.log(a); => 'x'console.log(b); => 'x'
a[0] = 'z';console.log(a); => 'x';

The behavior of JavaScript objects and implementation are the same like Ruby’s mutable objects. Both copy be reference value.

JavaScript primitive types are copied by value. The behavior is the same like Ruby’s immutable objects which are copied by reference value .

Huh?

Again, when you copy something by value it means you can’t change (mutate) the original value since there is no reference to the memory address. From the perspective of the writing code this is the same thing like having immutable entities that you can’t mutate.

If you compare Ruby and JavaScript the only data type that ‘behaves’ differently by default is String (that’s why we used String in the examples above).

In Ruby it is a mutable object and it is copied/passed by reference value while in JavaScript it is a primitive type and copied/passed by value.

When you wanna clone (not copy) an object you have to do it explicitly in both languages so you can make sure the original object won’t be modified:

a = { 'name': 'Kate' }b = a.cloneb['name'] = 'Anna'puts a => {:name=>"Kate"}
var a = { 'name': 'Kate' };var b = {...a}; // with the new ES6 syntaxb['name'] = 'Anna';console.log(a); => {name: "Kate"}

It is crucial to remember this otherwise you will run into some nasty bugs when you invoke your code more than once. A good example would be a recursive function where you use the object as argument.

Another one is React (JavaScript front-end framework) where you always have to pass a new object for updating state as the comparison works based on object id.

This is faster because you don’t have to go through the object line by line to see if it has been changed.

How variables are passed to functions

Passing variables to functions is working the same way like copying for the same data types in most of the languages.

In JavaScript primitive types are copied and passed by value and objects are copied and passed by reference value.

I think this is the reason why people only talk about pass by value or pass by reference and never seem to mention copying. I guess they assume copying works the same way.

a = 'b'
def output(string) # passed by reference value string = 'c' # reassigned so no reference to the original puts stringend
output(a) => 'c'puts a => 'b'
def output2(string) # passed by reference value string.concat('c') # we change the value that sits in the address puts stringend
output(a) => 'bc'puts a => 'bc'

Now in JavaScript:

var a = 'b';
function output (string) { // passed by value string = 'c'; // reassigned to another value console.log(string);}
output(a); => 'c'console.log(a); => 'b'
function output2 (string) { // passed by value string.concat('c'); // we can't modify it without reference console.log(string);}
output2(a); => 'b'console.log(a); => 'b'

If you pass an object (not a primitive type like we did) in JavaScript to the function it works the same way like the Ruby example.

Other languages

We have already seen how copy/pass by value and copy/pass by reference value work. Now we will see what pass by reference is about and we also discover how we can change objects if we pass by value.

As I looked for pass by reference languages I couldn’t find too many and I ended up choosing Perl. Let’s see how copying works in Perl:

my $x = 'string';my $y = $x;$x = 'new string';
print "$x"; => 'new string'print "$y"; => 'string'
my $a = {data => "string"};my $b = $a;$a->{data} = "new string";
print "$a->{data}\n"; => 'new string'print "$b->{data}\n"; => 'new string'

Well this seems to be the same just like in Ruby. I haven’t found any proof but I would say Perl is copied by reference value for String.

Now let’s check what pass by reference means:

my $x = 'string';print "$x"; => 'string'
sub foo { $_[0] = 'new string'; print "$_[0]"; => 'new string'}
foo($x);
print "$x"; => 'new string'

Since Perl is passed by reference if you do a reassignment within the function it will change the original value of the memory address as well.

For pass by value language I have chosen Go as I intend to deepen my Go knowledge in the foreseeable future:

package mainimport "fmt"
func changeAddress(a *int) { fmt.Println(a) *a = 0 // setting the value of the memory address to 0}
func changeValue(a int) { fmt.Println(a) a = 0 // we change the value within the function fmt.Println(a)}
func main() { a := 5 fmt.Println(a) fmt.Println(&a) changeValue(a) // a is passed by value fmt.Println(a) changeAddress(&a) // memory address of a is passed by value fmt.Println(a)}
When you compile and run the code you will get the following:
0xc42000e32855050xc42000e3280

If you wanna change the value of a memory address you have to use pointers and pass around memory addresses by value. A pointer holds the memory address of a value.

The & operator generates a pointer to its operand and the * operator denotes the pointer’s underlying value. This basically means that you pass the memory address of a value with & and you set the value of a memory address with *.

Conclusion

How to evaluate a language:

  1. Understand the underlying data types in the language. Read some specifications and play around with them. It usually boils down to primitive types and objects. Then check if those objects are mutable or immutable. Some languages use different copying/passing tactics for different data types.
  2. Next step is the variable assignment, copying, reassignment and comparison. This is the most crucial part I think. Once you get this you will be able to figure out what’s going on. It helps a lot if you check the memory addresses when playing around.
  3. Passing variables to functions usually is not special. It usually works the same way like copying in most languages. Once you you know how the variables are copied and reassigned you already know how they are passed to functions.

The languages we used here:

  • Go: Copied and passed by value
  • JavaScript: Primitive types are copied/passed by value, objects are copied/passed by reference value
  • Ruby: Copied and passed by reference value + mutable/immutable objects
  • Perl: Copied by reference value and passed by reference

When people say passed by reference they usually mean passed by reference value. Passing by reference value means that variables are passed around by value but those values are references to the objects.

As you saw Ruby only uses pass by reference value while JavaScript uses a mixed strategy. Still, the behavior is the same for almost all the data types due to the different implementation of the data structures.

Most of the mainstream languages are either copied and passed by value or copied and passed by reference value. For the last time: Pass by reference value is usually called pass by reference.

In general pass by value is safer as you won’t run into issues since you can’t accidentally change the original value. It is also slower to write because you have to use pointers if you want to change the objects.

It’s the same idea like with static typing vs dynamic typing — development speed at the cost of safety. As you guessed pass by value is usually a feature of lower level languages like C, Java or Go.

Pass by reference or reference value are usually used by higher level languages like JavaScript, Ruby and Python.

When you discover a new language go through the process like we did here and you will understand how it works.

Tai nėra lengva tema ir nesu tikras, ar viskas teisinga, ką čia parašiau. Jei manote, kad šiame straipsnyje padariau klaidų, praneškite man apie tai komentaruose.